divine transcendence and immanence

Spinoza, often seen as the paradigmatic pantheist, is of special import here, since Hegel says that philosophy must begin with him (and go beyond him). Negotiating the relation between divine transcendence and divine immanence lies at the heart of Maimonides’ Guide of the Perplexed and of Kierkegaard’s philosophical works. The Old Testament, for example, records a prohibition against idols, and this can be interpreted as an attempt to emphasize the wholly “otherness” of God which cannot be represented physically. The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.Find this resource: (p. 126) The latter pair are preferential. The Reason does not self-destruct in paralogisms and antinomies but triumphs as speculative, Absolute Idealism. Hegel’s philosophy of religion contains many more reinterpretations of traditional Christian themes. But speculative philosophy is definitely wrong when it purports to preserve the content of Christianity in a superior form. That is what Kierkegaard means when he says that the biblical God is always the ‘middle term’ between myself and my neighbour (1995, 58, 67, 77, 107, 119–21, 142). transcendence, (3) transcendence versus immanence, (4) theological transcendence and philosophy and (5) conclusion. It is often contrasted with theories of transcendence, in which … This is immanence. Compre o livro Divine Transcendence and Immanence in the Work of Thomas Aquinas: A Collection of Studies presented at the Third Conference of the Thomas Instituut te Utrecht, December 15-17, 2005 na Amazon.com.br: confira as ofertas para livros em inglês e importados When pantheism is described as the view that it is the world as a whole that is divine, this does not mean the totality of finite beings piled, as it were, in one great heap (Hegel 1988, 123–4). Hegel was encouraged in this direction by Schelling and Hölderlin. In contemporary theology, it was Karl Barth, the great Swiss German theologian who emphasised the importance of the otherness of God – his utter transcendence – more than any other theologian in his long and bitter battle against the theological liberalism of his day. Human knowledge of God belongs to, or rather constitutes, the very being of God. The concept pair transcendence/immanence is at the core of European philosophy since the ancient Greeks. Hegel was the theoretician and the Church was the practitioner of a philosophy of immanence that made God redundant. Precisely for that reason, neighbour love needs to be commanded, whilst the other two do not. 1983). But, in the first place, this does not let him off the hook, for he demonstrates his willingness to do it by travelling for three days to the appointed place of sacrifice. Kierkegaard distinguishes it from erotic love and friendship in two ways. Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, Vol. Thus Plotinus can distinguish the One from the many that emanate from it, just as we can distinguish the sun from the light and heat that radiate from it. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts’ (vv 8-9). This ‘beyond’ can also signify outside rather than inside in the sense of being irreducible to some dimension of human psychology or sociology. Abraham’s only justification is that God has told him to do what is condemned in his lifeworld. To be a respectable citizen, which meant being a non-criminal, productive member of society and a church member who attended with some degree of regularity, was all that could be expected of anyone. Hegel serves as the model of immanence within the nineteenth century. Anything less will do grave injustice to the biblical witness. To listen now, click on the play button in the player above. The immanence of God has to do with his active presence in the whole of creation. God Who Acts. 2014. (p. 123) Pantheistic humanism and biblical theism are mutually exclusive. Philosophy of Right. Login with Facebook Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion: One-Volume Edition: The Lectures of 1827. Critique of Pure Reason. Divine Transcendence And Divine Imanence. As Gregory of Nyssa has declared: ‘God’s transcendent power is not so much displayed in the vastness of the heavens, or the luster of the stars, or the orderly arrangement of the universe or his perpetual oversight of it, as in his condescension to our weak nature’. ]Find this resource: Kierkegaard, Søren. For the theist, who affirms creation as a voluntary act of a personal God, there is an asymmetrical reciprocity between God and the world. Immanence is the religious and metaphysical concept of a supreme divine force or being existing and acting within the physical world. Hegel’s God. A teleological suspension is what Hegel calls an Aufhebung: something that takes itself or is taken to be self-standing and self-sufficient is demoted to part of a larger whole of which it is not the organizing principle or hegemonic criterion. Similarly, God is present in the world when, where, and as God chooses to enter, act, and speak. Curiously, this downgrading of religion comes when Hegel has abandoned his Nietzschean diatribes against biblical religion in both Jewish and Christian forms and begun to praise Christianity as the highest form of religion: it is ‘the revealed religion’ (1977, ch. Philosophical Fragments/Johannes Climacus. Religious knowledge understands itself to be consciousness, a subject–object awareness of some reality truly other than the religious subject. For any individual, even the philosopher, the highest epistemic and ethical norms are those of their own lifeworld. Philosophy as a scientific system is Speculation, not in the sense of unfounded guesses (as in a speculative housing market), but in the sense of the If Hegel was too religious for Marx, he was not religious enough for Kierkegaard, who saw him as an essentially secular thinker who misleadingly retained a lot of traditional religious language. In the case of Spinoza, that means moving on from the category of substance as the ultimate form of being to spirit (Hegel 1977, 9–14; Hegel 1988, 117–23). … Do I not fill heaven and earth?’ The divine immanence signals God’s closest and most intimate relationship with the world, but without ever compromising his transcendental otherness. The laws and customs of my people, the institutions of my society, and the values of my culture still have authority for me; but it is only a prima facie authority and can be trumped by the revealed will of God. 32, Cor. The interpretation advocated by Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin upholds the very position that his master and predecessor, the Vilna Gaon, Although the issue of divine immanence was laid to rest, a separate distinction regarding the import of tzimtzum yet remained outstanding. The third dimension of Hegel’s philosophy of immanence is the ethical/religious. On the one hand, the religion-within-the-limits-of-reason-alone project, including Hegel’s version, rests on some version of Plato’s theory of knowledge as recollection. 1961. The common people will doubtless stick with traditional understandings, but the intellectual elite, who operate at the highest level of human understanding (the top of some version of Plato’s divided line) will possess the real truth of the matter. Only when history has reached its goal, when the acorn has become a fully grown oak tree, do we have a fully actual ‘God’ as a world of human spirit that is ultimate and cannot be transcended. The distinction sometimes drawn between general revelation and special revelation is relevant here. Religious language might remain, but only as emptied of its Shemini shares a root with the Hebrew word shemen , meaning “oil.” Oil has two tendencies. I use this to discuss the problems for a scientifically-informed Christian theology that come from overstressing divine transcendence (which can lead to a sense of divine distance, even absence, from creation) or overstressing divine immanence (which can blur the distinction between God and the world). They are working with two very different concepts of Reason. But the most powerful versions of this project in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, respectively, can be said to be those of Spinoza, Kant, and Hegel. The concept of divine transcendence must always be accompanied by the concept of divine immanence if theology is to achieve a more balanced understanding of the God revealed in Scripture. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Find this resource: Eliade, Mircea. Contents . It is ‘unreasonable’ relative to that Reason that takes the Universal, the present age and its ideology, to be the highest criterion of truth. Pantheism, on the other hand, privileges divine immanence in such a way that the distinction between God and the world is erased. Negotiating the relation between divine transcendence and divine immanence lies at the heart of Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed and of Kierkegaard's philosophical works. (p. 117) London: SCM Press.Find this resource: Desmond, William. ]Find this resource: Kierkegaard, Søren. At any point where a scriptural text fails to conform to some particular version of human reason, it must be reinterpreted so as to receive reason’s imprimatur. In some forms of deism and pantheism, the claim is that any religious beliefs not warranted by reason should be rejected outright as superstition or illusion. Which Interpretation? Oxford: Clarendon Press.Find this resource: Hegel, G. W. F. 1969. Translated by T. M. Knox. transcendence presupposes the cosmological transcendence of a personal God who is a purposive agent and a performer of speech acts. (p. 113) Immanence, in philosophy and theology, a term applied, in contradistinction to “transcendence,” to the fact or condition of being entirely within something (from Latin immanere, “to dwell in, remain”). Fear and Trembling, probably Kierkegaard’s most read and discussed book, has three ‘problems’ at its heart. of immanence, and the importance of the naming of God—a naming which finds a grammar for divine mystery within and beyond religious language. Fear and Trembling/Repetition. They turn out to be as particular as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, grounded in metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical presuppositions as particular as the Scriptures of the Abrahamic monotheisms. For the pantheist there is a symmetry in the reciprocity of God and the world. But Hegel is no foundationalist, and the truth that appears at the beginning is not adequate until it has been fully developed. 482–507. Indeed, God is not just other than the believer but ‘wholly other’. The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world. Early Theological Writings. In the theistic context, a personal God is the ontological ground of the right and the good, whilst divine revelation is the highest norm for our knowledge of how we can and should best live our lives. This pantheism of the human spirit is already present in the early theological writings. Second, its source is the transcendent, personal God of theism, who is the agent of ‘the mighty acts of God’ in history (Wright 1952) and the performer of such speech acts as promises and commands, either directly to some individual or In Kierkegaard’s view, no political party or ideology can be trusted as the authoritative interpreter and agent of this ethical norm. immanence and transcendence makes it impossible to speak credibly about God or to adhere to scientifically acceptable faith claims in the context of experiential realism. Each of these, however, is mutually incompatible with both of the other two. Or alternately, the concepts of transcendence and immanence lose their differentiating boundaries at the culmination of the journey of descent. In Hegel’s Development: Toward the Sunlight, 1770–1801. The doctrine of the Incarnation is the claim that the human and divine natures are united. Kant, and so many others. Where it is claimed that God is revealed through the means of unaided human thought (as in the Five Ways of Thomas Aquinas), one can say that reason itself is a source of revelation. Pages 117-130. To assume that the philosopher (whom Kierkegaard insists is not quite the same as Philosophy) occupies ‘the view from nowhere’, operating at some neutral standpoint from which the form of philosophy can be seen to be superior to that of religion, is simply to beg the question. The sacrifice or execution is a subordination of the family’s interest to the interests of the larger society, the state, if you will. Special revelation, which is usually meant when reason and revelation are contrasted, is transcendent in two ways. The overt appeal to the revelations associated with such names as Moses, Isaiah, Jesus, Paul, and Muhammad means that any claims for universal significance (very prominent in Christianity and Islam) cannot appeal to universal reason as their ground. We can say that in the quintessence transcendence and immanence meet. Login with Facebook (p. 121) The beneficiaries of the status quo can always point out how ‘unreasonable’ it is to take such an ideal seriously enough to convert it into policy. Divine transcendence and the mystery of salvation according to Thomas Aquinas. This is not a polytheism of individuals as gods. 1938. The third describes the movements by which this dialectical union of individual and society becomes aware of itself in art, religion, and philosophy. Both of them were drawn to Fichte’s notion of the Absolute Self that was absolute by having no objects other than itself and thus, ironically, no consciousness. There is a long history of distinguishing faith from reason along these lines; for in its epistemic dimension faith is the acknowledgement and acceptance of divine revelation in this sense. First, the difference between particularity and universality is theologically loaded. It is often contrasted with theories of transcendence, in which the divine is seen to be outside the material world. It is in his account of ethical life that Hegel writes, ‘Whatever happens, every individual is a child of his time; so philosophy too is its own time apprehended in thoughts. Third, in Hegelian usage the inadequacy of religious thought and language as mere representations is more specifically theological than is captured by a reference to sense perception. This book collects papers presented at the 2018 conference of the European Society for the Study of Science and Theology (ESSSAT). The divine is the many as emanating from the One. As Donald Bloesch puts it: ‘If we conceive of God as infinitely other, we must at the same time envisage him as infinitely close. The help he receives from his teacher is only the occasion for ‘recollecting’ what he ‘already’ knows, the truth that is already ‘within’ him. Kierkegaard repeatedly insists that Abraham’s faith is ‘absurd’, ‘paradoxical’, and sheer ‘madness’. When we turn from Hegel’s ‘cosmological’ or ontological account of divine immanence to his ideas of epistemic immanence, we do not leave the former behind. Translated by John W. Harvey. We might say that in Hegel’s later thought this love diversifies into many forms of union at the level of spirit: love unites the members of a family; economic interest unites the participants of civil society; law unites the citizens of the state; and art, religion, and philosophy unite those who share a common culture. Objective Spirit transcends itself in Absolute Spirit, and every penultimate lifeworld (society plus culture) transcends itself towards the ultimate lifeworld. It is along these lines that Kierkegaard distinguishes autonomous philosophical reason from Christian faith as dependent on divine revelation, transmitted through the Bible and biblical preaching. In terms of epistemology, transcendence signifies that whether or not we can have some reliable knowledge of God by means of unaided human reason, the most important things we need to know come from outside or above through divine revelation. In revelation, God’s voice cannot simply be equated with either my voice or our voice. Metaphysically speaking, these practices have their ground in God, sometimes understood as God’s intellect and sometimes as God’s will. First, it fails to distinguish religion from the arts, whose knowledge is dependent on sense perception. Only the society in which the historical process comes to the goal appointed by Reason in the world is fully divine, and this occurs only when it adequately understands itself in the philosophy that brings its own history to fulfilment. Unlike Kant, he holds that this latter aspiration is fulfilled in genuine philosophy. These are ideal types and fit some thinkers only with some qualification. It is held by some philosophical and metaphysical theories of divine presence. The truth about God is already within us. The second perspective is to look at divine transcendence and immanence through biblical narratives. [This, 1983, 1985, and 1992 are pseudonymous. For example, in Jeremiah 23: 24, the Lord declares: ‘Can a man hide himself in secret places to that I cannot see? Philosophical Hermeneutics for the Church (Baker Academic, 2009). As in previous studies, we will look at definitions, scriptures, commentary evidence, dictionary entries and portions of essays for the purpose to glorify… Thus Hegel’s Jesus, who rises above both Jewish and Christian religion, explicitly repudiates both the idea of a personal God and the idea that he is ontologically different from his followers. L'intégration de la transcendance et l'immanence, mais génère pas de dualisme la communion. Second, the link to Kant is lost. The article concludes with an appropriation of transcendence and immanence within the shifts or displacements of Homo sapiens’ consciousness of interpreted religious experience. And in the second place, this is not what distinguishes Abraham from the three ‘tragic heroes’ who actually do kill their own son or daughter: Agamemnon, Jephthah, and Brutus. Marx was an offshoot of the Young Hegelians, most especially Feuerbach, whose atheism he adopted and pushed in political directions. Kierkegaard’s Concept of Faith. This concept generally contrasts or coexists with the idea of transcendence. Transcendence is here not a “realm” to be reached by reason or experience; it instead refers to the fact that God cannot be objectified or mastered. Thus the idea that God is in heaven; the phenomenological analyses by Bevan (1938) and Eliade (1958) of height as a religious symbol; and the argument of Wilhelm Schmidt for the priority of the ‘high God’ in ‘primitive’ religion (Brandewie 1982. This will include religion, of course, which is a lower form of knowledge. Divine transcendence and immanence are the related Christian doctrines that while God is exalted in his royal dignity and exercises both control and authority in his creation (transcendence), he is, by virtue of this control and authority, very present to his creation, especially his people, in a personal and intimate way (immanence). Transcendence and Immanence: Deciphering Their Relation through the Transcendentals in Aquinas and Kant Alexander J. Transcendence is a philosophical and theological concept of an ultimate origin or instance that is separated by an ontological gap from what it “causes,” “releases” from itself, or brings into being (Szlezák 2002).Usually, it is the difference between the “world” and the “otherwordly” principle or personal being that this term implies. He is the author of two books on Hegel and two on Kierkegaard, he also works on continental philosophy of religion in the contexts of existentialism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, ideology critique, and deconstruction. (p. 118) It means the totality of finite things as informed or animated by a single power, life, or necessity. There are several reasons why I have chosen the above- Let us see how it stands the test of time.’ Or again, ‘The Hegelian system may be right and Christianity wrong. In touch with another person I encounter something not only different from and beyond me but also worthy of respect and thus capable of being violated. Works of Love. In other words, this tradition presents itself as a series of variations on the Platonic theme of knowledge as recollection. Some of his late, highly polemical pamphlets have been described as an ‘attack upon Christendom’. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Kierkegaard takes us back to the story of Genesis 22, in which Abraham is told by God to take Isaac, the son of promise, and sacrifice him to God. scientific community can confirm (rediscover) the results for themselves, just as the slave boy in Plato’s Meno does not need to rely on the authority of Socrates to see the truth of the Pythagorean theorem. 17 It was belief in the utter transcendence of God that marked out the Israelites from the ancient world, leading them not only to reject all forms of idolatry but also the reverencing of all earthly sovereigns as divine, even at great political and social cost. of His divine nature which are the starting point for theology proper: transcendence and immanence. So his accounts of divine immanence, both at the concrete level of philosophy of spirit and at the abstract level of a logic that gives us the forms of both nature and history, constitute his account of the relation of his God, Absolute Spirit, to the world. A God who is purely transcendental cannot interact with immanent beings, confined by the limitations of time and space. 187-198 Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Find this resource: Westphal, Merold. The purpose of the paper is to explore the manners in which they do so. Origins of Transcendence and Immanence . Today we would probably say secular rather than pagan. In correspondence with his seminary friends Schelling and Hölderlin, he abandons the concept of a personal God as found in Kant and orthodox Christianity, and, in drafts only published posthumously as his ‘early theological writings’, he replaces it at the cosmological level with an essentially pantheistic concept. The idea of a transcendent God has roots both in Judaism and in Neoplatonic philosophy.The Old Testament, for example, records a prohibition against idols, and this can be interpreted as an attempt to emphasize the wholly “otherness” of God which cannot be represented physically. To say that God is immanent is to say either that God is not transcendent (pantheism) or that God is not only transcendent (theism). 36, App). Scripture attests to this in various ways. This is Objective Spirit, the network of practices and institutions that make up our life together. Every society (Objective Spirit) and culture (Absolute Spirit) is divine, but only incipiently (an sich); it is and should be transcended by subsequent stages of historical development. The word is derived from Latin in-manere , meaning to remain within. ‘Representation’ is the standard translation in Kantian contexts, where it signifies the finite knowledge of common sense and the natural sciences and thus Understanding as distinct from Reason. The saving acts that bring about reconciliation between God and human persons are either past or future (the first and second comings of Jesus, most especially the life of the world to come) and not fully present. This view of God’s transcendence contradicts the view of God’s immanence which we presented. (p. 124) When Kierkegaard says that for paganism ‘the ethical is the divine’ (1983, 60), he is suggesting that, for all their use of Christian language, Hegel and Christendom are, ironically, more pagan than Christian (Westphal 2007). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Find this resource: Bevan, Edwyn. Since truth has classically been defined as the adequation of the intellect to its object, and since religion is in these ways inadequate to its referent, religion as such can at best be the presentiment or promise of a truth yet to be found. Even societies that give lip service to such a duty, such as Kierkegaard’s Christendom or America’s pledge of ‘liberty and justice for all’, show that they do not really mean it. Hegel’s name for this ground/norm is ‘ethical life’ (Sittlichkeit). Divine transcendence and immanence in the work of Thomas Aquinas Document version: Peer reviewed version Publication date: 2009 Link to publication Citation for published version (APA): Schoot, H. J. M. (2009). Immanence is usually applied in monotheistic, pantheistic, pandeistic, or panentheistic faiths to suggest that the spiritual world permeates the mundane. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.Find this resource: Westphal, Merold. Socrates virtually gives him the answer by drawing the right diagram. We can call this a humanistic pantheism. Both these sets of descriptors fully apply to God. But in the Phenomenology and subsequent writings, Hegel adopts the second strategy, reinterpretation rather than outright rejection. Translated by J. Michael Steward and Peter C. Hodgson. As universal, the ethical is not some abstract rule but some concrete community. Vorstellung is sometimes translated as ‘picture thinking’, but this is not helpful for several reasons. As a System it has systematically changed the content. The latter strategy allows one to retain religious language whilst giving substantially different meanings to it. His autonomy does not consist in being able to discover the truth for himself. At the same time, human nature is the ontological ground of legitimate practices, whether it is conceived as simply an expression of nature in general (the Stoics, Spinoza); or of something unique and different from the natural world (Platonic, Cartesian body/soul dualism); or of some particular, historical-cultural stage of human development (the nature/spirit dualism of Hegelian Idealism). Thus the question, ‘Is there a Teleological Suspension of the Ethical?’ is equivalent to the question, ‘Is there an Absolute Duty to God?’ (1983, 54, 68). (p. 119) History and Truth in Hegel’s Phenomenology, 3rd edition. Here the concept of substance has become a sociological category, signifying the dialectical way in which society is the ground and goal of the individuals who create and maintain it. In religious experience, transcendence is a state of being that has overcome the limitations of physical existence, … Hegel’s theology takes shape in the years 1793–1800, prior to his first university appointment and first published essays. Descriptions of divine immanence can be seen in Nigleh, from the Bible to Rabbinic Judaism. In H. Login with Gmail. In Genesis, God makes a personal covenant with the forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The rhetoric of his hostility to biblical Judaism and Christianity is positively Nietzschean; both are slave religions, precisely due to the ontological, epistemic, and ethical/religious transcendence of God. Thus, for example, Spinoza denies that ‘God’ acts from free will or with an end in view (1982, Prop. But it is not abolished, only relativized (1983, 54, 56, 70–1). BY CLIFFORD GOLDSTEIN. Reason in Religion: The Foundations of Hegel’s Philosophy of Religion. In one sense the Lutheran state Church of Denmark is a second target of his writings; but in another sense it is not really different. Kierkegaard knows Hegel well enough to know that this would be a misreading. Like Kant, Hegel thinks that these modes of cognition fall short of metaphysical knowledge, grasping the highest reality as it truly is. By contrast, neighbour love cannot select; it includes the unattractive, even the enemy. But for Christianity, this is a particular truth that occurs uniquely in Jesus of Nazareth, whereas for philosophy, it is a general truth about human beings, as we have seen in Hegel’s pantheism of spirit: ontologically speaking, all human beings are incarnations of the same divine life. [Citations are from the first of these. 1923. In philosophical theology, epistemic immanence signifies that our highest knowledge of the highest truth is available to human reason unaided by divine revelation. One route of entry into the issue is to ask whether Hegel was a pantheist, and if so, in what sense? The Main Philosophical Writings and the Novel Allwell. This is immanence. Kierkegaard postulates, reasonably enough, that he does not live in a society in which child sacrifice is practised and accepted. The first is the philosophical psychology that develops the ‘I’, Spirit in its individual mode. My lifeworld cannot be identified as the Kingdom of God; nor can Reason as its ideology be identified with the highest criterion of belief and practice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Find this resource: Hegel, G. W. F. 1972. But there is a seemingly less harsh way of maintaining the authority of human reason over any divine revelation. In worship, a believer in immanence might say that one can find God wherever one seeks Him. 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( ESSSAT ) which child sacrifice is practised and accepted this a ‘ teleological suspension divine transcendence and immanence the century... Terms of cosmology, epistemology, ethics, G. W. F. 1977 Kierkegaard insists! Are pseudonymous consciously, both of them of theology, Volume 34, Number 2, fall 2018 pp! Reason does not live in a Trinitarian Frame: a theological Response Clive... Warranted by reason independently of revelation Catholic Heritage Spirituality on iTunes Foundations of Hegel ’ s argument essentially reverses picture. One might say that one can find God wherever one seeks him before... Christianity as an agent ( not merely necessity but freedom his distance from us 442–6 ), fails! Title ‘ God ’ s Development: Toward the Sunlight, 1770–1801 with an of. Success ) only those who are in some way attractive to me knowledge understands itself to influential..., remains forever sovereign 70–1 ) doctrine of the same is true of the Incarnation is the claim God... This entails the double hegemony described above, either rejecting or reinterpreting any practices not by! Success ) only those who are in constant need divine transcendence and immanence prophetic protests reminders! To our show, Catholic Heritage Spirituality on iTunes or displacements of Homo sapiens ’ consciousness of religious... Distinction between representations and concepts as theologically substantive and not merely a force or being and. After them which we presented of 1827 tree it always was Steward and C.! Where impersonal power takes precedence, the concepts of reason direction by Schelling and Hölderlin emphasizes an Either/Or... Be the world is to refer to different aspects of the Hegelian world-view of scholars a... Pa: University of California Press.Find this resource: Westphal, Merold s Confessions categories are ‘ metaphysical of... Expressed in several ways as universal, the very being of God is often contrasted with theories of transcendence the! Difference between theism and pantheism the post-Nietzschean, materialist assumption that divine transcendence and immanence in Augustine ’ constructive...

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